Resistant TIK-Based endairA against the Tunneling Attack
DSR is one of the first routing algorithms proposed to operate in ad hoc networks. Several secure on- demand ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed based on DSR. endairA is one of the most secure ones and provides several defense mechanisms against so many types of attacks. In this paper, we improve endairA's performance in terms of processing delays of intermediate nodes by the application of TIK authentication protocol instead of digital signatures to authenticate the nodes. We also incorporate our novel tunneling prevention mechanism into this modified version of endairA to defend it against the tunneling attack. Our proposed mechanism utilizes the delays between receiving and sending control packets of endairA computed locally by all intermediate nodes. Our detailed security analysis shows that it can limit the adversary's ability to launch undetected tunneling attack to an acceptable level. Our proposal does not change the number of control packets involved in endairA and only modifies the RREP messages slightly.